Improving Vehicle Performance and Efficiency Through ECU Functionality.

By 2p7Qa98q 5 days ago

How Does the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) Function?

The ECU collects input from various sensors around your car. Signals from these sensors measure heat, voltage, movement, location and magnetic force.

The ECU then evaluates this data with efficient algorithms to give the vehicle improved performance. It then sends signals via connectors and wires to actuators around your car that make the necessary changes.

Controls Fuel Injection

The ECU manages the fuel injection system, which sends short electrical pulses to trigger each injector to open and fire. These pulses are based on input from sensors, such as the mass airflow sensor which helps ensure the fuel-air mixture is ideal (known as a’stoichiometric’ mix).

Other factors the ECU may use to control the amount of fuel injected include throttle position and engine speed. In petrol engines, the ECU is also able to detect engine knock and adjust the ignition timing accordingly.

As the trucking industry moves towards autonomous driving, the ECU will become critical to processing sensor data and decision-making. This will allow trucking companies to optimize vehicle performance and reduce fuel usage. It will also enable a more dynamic driving experience, while improving safety and efficiency. This will help lower the carbon footprint of the transportation industry. Moreover, it will also reduce the need for manual labor, which can significantly decrease operational costs.

Controls Ignition

In modern cars, the ECU (or powertrain control module if it controls both the engine and transmission) is essential to the car’s performance and functionality. The electronic device oversees many aspects of the motor’s operation and, utilising a series of sensors and pre-programmed software, ensures that it is operating as efficiently as possible.

An ECU is also responsible for ensuring that the ignition system is activated at exactly the right time, using data from a Crankshaft Position Sensor to determine when the internal combustion process should occur. The exact timing is then calculated, using a variety of formulas and tables stored within the software, to determine if the transistor that triggers the spark plug should be active or not.

The ECU is also involved in the engine’s emissions control, ensuring that it meets environmental regulations by adjusting fuel injection pulse widths and ignition timing. It is also responsible for monitoring and controlling exhaust gas recirculation, air temperature, throttle body opening and mixture adjustments to optimise the combustion process.

Controls Brakes

ECUs also manage various safety systems in your vehicle. The airbag module for example monitors crash sensors and determines whether or not to deploy the car’s airbags in the event of an accident. Its counterpart the BCM used in vehicles with ABS monitors the wheels to ensure they are not skidding and determines when to trigger braking and when to release it to prevent wheel lock-up.

Often referred to as the brain of the engine, an ECU is in reality a computer, switching system and power management system in a small case. To function, even at a basic level an ECU needs to integrate 4 different areas of operation and receive input from several sources including temperature and pressure sensors, on/off signals and requests from other modules in the vehicle such as those provided by the Antilock Braking System module when applying traction control. As such, the ECU is very sensitive to harsh environments and can suffer from excess vibration, water or electrical surges which may cause it to malfunction and shut down.

Controls Air Conditioning

As a central hub that manages all the electronic functions of a car, the ECU is essentially responsible for all of your comfort features. Its input data comes from sensors installed throughout the system, such as temperature and pressure sensors, as well as from the thermostat that sets the desired climate. The microprocessor inside the control board then processes this information and activates various output circuits, such as those controlling the fan motor and compressor. This is monitored by a monitoring microprocessor, a second computer that oversees the main processor and ensures that everything is operating properly.

A direct digital control (DDC) system can help you save energy by monitoring your HVAC units and sending commands based on their actual performance. It allows you to keep maintenance schedules based on real-time data, boost energy efficiency, and alert technicians when equipment needs attention. It also provides more situational awareness for remote sites, while helping reduce operating expenses and downtime.

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The electrifying and culturally significant world of Korean Powerball.

By 2p7Qa98q 2 months ago

Have you ever tuned in to the 에볼루션파워볼 중계 and felt the electricity in the air as each number is drawn? It’s a riveting experience that combines chance, strategy, and anticipation in one chaotic, yet beautifully orchestrated symphony.

In the heart of this thrilling ride is Powerball, a game of numbers that has garnered a global following. The Korean Powerball, especially, has made waves with its unique flavor of excitement. It’s more than just a lottery; it’s a cultural phenomenon that entices players from all walks of life, providing a shared sense of hope and exhilaration.

As you dive into the world of Korean Powerball, you’re not just observing an ordinary game. The process is an art form, painted with the hopes and dreams of countless individuals. You’re watching the hopes of a nation unfold in real time, with each number danced out, elevating the suspense to near tangible levels. It’s pure entertainment, marred only by the unpredictability that is its very essence.

The draw, known as the 에볼루션파워볼 중계, is an experience, a weekly ritual for many, that can only be described as a social glue, a conversational starter, and above all, a dream maker. Spectators are glued to their screens, anticipating each reveal, as they clutch their tickets a little tighter with every number called.

Whether you’re in it for the rush, the potential fortune, or simply the communal vibe, engaging in the Korean Powerball is a testament to the human spirit and our enduring love of the game. Intriguing analogies liken the Powerball to a fierce, yet fair gladiatorial battle, where only the luckiest emerge victorious, their lives forever changed by the fickle hands of fate.

So, why is the 에볼루션파워볼 중계 so captivating? Perhaps it’s the seamless blend of culture, chance, and the collective yearning for a better tomorrow. As players and spectators alike listen for the golden numbers, they are united by a common thread of hope and excitement, each one daring to dream.

In conclusion, the evocative world of the Korean Powerball is a testament to chance and its power to bring people together. The shared anticipation and energy make each broadcast more than just a game—it’s a cultural touchstone that resonates with the dreams of millions.

FAQs:

Q: What is 에볼루션파워볼 중계?
A: It refers to the live broadcast or streaming of the Korean Powerball lottery draw.

Q: How often does the Powerball draw take place in Korea?
A: The Powerball draw in Korea typically occurs multiple times a day, allowing for frequent opportunities to win.

Q: Can international viewers participate in the Korean Powerball?
A: While international participation may be possible through various online services, it’s important to check local laws and regulations for eligibility.

Q: Is there a strategy to increase winning chances in Powerball?
A: As Powerball is a game of chance, there is no surefire strategy to guarantee a win, though some players employ methods like selecting “lucky” numbers or analyzing patterns.

Q: What makes the Powerball exciting to watch?
A: The unpredictability of the outcome, the cultural significance, and the personal stories of hope and anticipation make watching Powerball an engaging and thrilling experience.…

Electronic Remote Control Cars: The Brain, Signals, and Motors

By 2p7Qa98q 2 months ago

Electronic Remote Control Car

Electronic remote control cars are very popular toys. The most important part of the car is its transmitter. It acts like the brain of the RC car. It sends radio signals that depend on the buttons you press to the receiver in the RC car.

The transmitter transmits these electrical signals to the RC circuit board. It then activates motors inside the toy that perform specific actions (e.g., turning the wheels or operating a propeller).

Transmitter

RC (radio-controlled) cars are operated using a wireless system that functions with radio waves. When you press a button on the transmitter it sends electrical signals that correspond to the action you want to perform. These are received by the receiver in the car, which identifies them as commands intended for it.

Once the receiver identifies the commands it activates the motors to perform them. The transmitter and receiver operate on separate frequency bands so they do not interfere with each other. The more expensive models of remote control cars may include digital addressing codes in the radio signals that can be used to differentiate them from other devices operating on the same frequency.

To bind the transmitter to the receiver you need to power up both the transmitter and the model, then push and hold the ‘link’ button (found on the receiver box) until it flashes red before shortly turning off and the transmitter LED re-lights. Full instructions can be found in the manual available as a PDF here.

Receiver

The receiver sits inside the car and changes the radio signals broadcast from the transmitter into electrical control signals for the motors. These motors drive the wheels and propel the car forward, backward, left, right, and side to side.

When a button is pressed on the handheld remote control switch transmitter, a signal is sent to the receiver. This signal contains the addressing and encryption of the corresponding control position.

The transmitter’s infrared diode emits a beam of light that the receiver picks up. It looks like purple pulses through a digital camera.

Depending on the style of car and remote controller, there are often several frequencies advertised on the box that can be chosen for use. Most inexpensive RC cars have only one frequency, while more expensive models generally allow for the choice of two different frequencies, so that two cars can be used simultaneously. This allows for racing.

Motors

Motors are the core component of any remote control car. They are responsible for all of its movements, and they convert the power source electric current into movement. They are available in many different sizes and shapes, so it’s important to choose the right one for your car. For example, if you want to use two motors in your car, make sure that each one has a different function. One should move the rear wheels while the other should move the front ones.

RC electric motors can be brushed or brushless. Brushed motors use carbon brushes to transfer current to the rotor, while brushless motors have an electronic controller to manage the flow of current. Both types have their advantages and disadvantages.

The transmitter of a RC car is the brain or central processor, and it functions similarly to regular television remotes. It transmits radio signals through a specific range of frequencies using a controller, and it operates a variety of features including reverse, forward, and left and right. To do this, it sends a signal to the receiver present inside the RC circuit that acts as an antenna.

Battery

Today’s remote control vehicles are almost all wireless. Most take batteries that you insert or rechargeable ones that plug into a charger. Some run on a single set of batteries for hours of play. Others use rechargeable batteries that you plug in for charging, so you never have to buy new ones.

Battery care is important. If you’re not careful, your battery can fail at the most inconvenient time and maybe even cause a fire. It’s best to form good battery management habits from the start, so your battery lasts as long as possible.

For example, you should avoid using batteries with an inferior C rating. This value lets you know the maximum speed at which the battery can be drained without damaging it. You should also avoid overcharging the battery, as this reduces its lifespan. LiPo batteries are more immune to the memory effect than Li-ion ones, but they still can’t be fully drained.

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Connecting Football Fans Across the Globe: The Power of International Football Broadcasting

By 2p7Qa98q 3 months ago

해외축구중계, or international football broadcasting, has taken the world by storm, connecting fans globally. For enthusiasts seeking the thrill of the game from leagues far and wide, it marks an era where distances matter no more.

Imagine, for a moment, that you’re sitting comfortably at home but your heart races at the pace of thousands of fans chanting in a packed stadium on another continent. That’s the power of 해외축구중계. This isn’t just a broadcast; it’s a bridge connecting different cultures, a blend of passion, and a shared love for the game.

Football broadcasts have evolved. They’re not mere streams of matches; they’re stories told in real-time, a narrative pulsing with each dribble, tackle, and goal. Tuning into a match is akin to opening a portal into the electric atmosphere of stadiums like Camp Nou or Old Trafford.

International football broadcasting thrives on unpredictability. One day you’re witnessing a dramatic last-minute winner in the English Premier League, and the next, you’re absorbed in the tactical intricacies of a UEFA Champions League encounter. It’s this unforeseen excitement that keeps fans on the edge of their seats.

How do you keep up with the relentless pace of matches scattered across different time zones? The true aficionado knows the ins and outs of scheduling, platforms showcasing 해외축구중계, and the art of multitasking when simultaneous kick-offs divide attention.

Navigating through this vast sea of football content requires more than just a love for the game; it requires a dedicated effort to follow storylines that span from the local pitches to the grandest arenas.

Then comes the final whistle, a moment to exhale. But is it really the end? Far from it – post-match discussions, analysis, and social media buzz extend the experience. Football is not just about the 90 minutes; it’s a continuous loop of anticipation, experience, and reflection.

As we wrap up, imagine a world without 해외축구중계. It would be like gazing at a starless night sky; a silent pitch devoid of cheers, devoid of the symphony that accompanies a well-struck ball.

FAQs:
1. What is 해외축구중계?
해외축구중계 refers to the live broadcasting of international football matches, making them accessible to viewers across the globe.

2. Why is 해외축구중계 popular?
It’s popular due to the universal appeal of football, allowing fans to watch tournaments and leagues from different countries, and experiencing the game’s global culture.

3. How can I access 해외축구중계?
You can access 해외축구중계 through various online platforms, cable services, and satellite TV providers that offer international sports coverage.

4. Are 해외축구중계 services typically in real-time?
Yes, most of these broadcasts are in real-time, with some offering live commentary in multiple languages.

5. Is there a cost associated with watching 해외축구중계?
It can vary. Some platforms offer free streaming, while others might require a subscription or pay-per-view fee.…

Signs of a Faulty Electronic Control Module

By 2p7Qa98q 3 months ago

Electronic Control Module Symptoms

Managing the ignition system, compression, and timing of your engine requires a lot of information from many different sensors. This means that the failure of any one sensor or wire will affect all of those functions as well.

If your car is experiencing erratic performance, you may need to replace your ECM. Here are five symptoms to watch for:

1. Engine Stalling

In modern cars, a bad ECM can cause problems with everything from the ignition system to the air and fuel management. One of the most obvious symptoms is engine performance issues such as reduced power and acceleration when the gas pedal is pressed.

A functioning engine control module can help regulate the amount of fuel used during the combustion process, resulting in optimal efficiency and less cost at the gas pump. When an ECM begins to malfunction, however, it can throw off these functions and cause the vehicle to consume more fuel than it should.

As a result, you may notice an increase in the price of gasoline over time. Of course, this can be attributed to many other things as well, such as a worn out spark plug or even a bad ignition coil, but if you notice these changes consistently over time, you should consider your ECM to be the likely culprit. This is why it’s important to have a professional check out your car’s engine control module if you’re concerned about its performance.

2. Check Engine Light

The most obvious sign of a problem with the ECM is when the check engine light comes on. This is one of the scariest car warning lights to see because it can indicate a variety of issues. It could mean something as minor as a broken oxygen sensor or a loose gas cap, or it could be the signal that the ECM itself is defective.

The ECM is responsible for managing a vast array of sensors and circuits that monitor, regulate, and control almost all of the vehicle’s engine-related systems. So, it’s no surprise that problems with the ECM can lead to a variety of other car trouble signs, like misfiring, stalling, and surging.

This type of symptom is more likely to point to a failure in the sensor or a faulty wire, rather than the ECM itself. However, it’s still a good idea to bring the car into the shop if this happens to make sure that the issue is dealt with quickly.

3. Excessive Fuel Consumption

The ECM in your vehicle monitors, regulates and controls a wide variety of sensors, circuits and components throughout your engine. These systems work together to ensure that your engine is operating properly, and that it gets the exact amount of fuel it needs. But if your ECM fails, the engine will not receive the correct air-to-fuel ratio and may burn through much more gas than usual. This will not only increase your fuel consumption, but it will also result in poor performance and even engine damage if not addressed quickly. Corrosion of the wiring harness and moisture infiltration are common causes of this symptom.

4. Misfiring Engine

It’s a good idea to keep an eye out for any signs that may indicate your car control module has gone bad. However, this doesn’t mean that every problem your vehicle experiences will have an ECM-related root cause. Oftentimes, it’s a simple and affordable sensor that’s to blame.

The ECM is responsible for a wide range of vehicle functions, from monitoring air-fuel mixture to ignition timing. If it has a major problem, it can significantly reduce the performance of your engine and other systems.

It’s a vital part of your automobile, so it’s important to check out any possible issues with it. It’s best to get a professional diagnosis if you notice any of the above symptoms. Continuing to drive with a bad ECM can lead to expensive engine damage. So, be sure to replace it as soon as you notice any problems with it!

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A Dominant Presence in Gaming: 에보 파워볼 – Enhancing Fun and Skills

By 2p7Qa98q 3 months ago

In the exceptional universe of gaming, lieu where enjoyment meets technology, 에보 파워볼 (Evo Powerball) makes a dominant presence.

Widely recognized for its enthralling and interactive gameplay, 에보 파워볼 keeps players on the edge of their seats. Offering an incredible blend of thrill and excitement in a digital era teeming with a multitude of similar platforms, the distinct character of 에보 파워볼 sets it notably above the rest.

로그인하면 에보 파워볼의 문이 열린다 (). From the immersive graphics to the captivating storyline, every aspect of this marquee gaming platform has been meticulously crafted to ensure nothing but pure, unadulterated fun and engagement.

The 여섯 번째 경험 에보 파워볼을 사랑하는 것은 이길 수 없다 (). I mean, who wouldn’t in this tech-fueled era find it irresistible? Its broad-spectrum capabilities go beyond gaming, providing players the opportunity to improve their skill and prowess while consuming thrilling entertainment.

In conclusion, 에보 파워볼 serves as a beacon of light in the digital entertainment panorama. As the future of gaming unfolds, players around the world will undoubtedly find 에보 파워볼 to be an indispensable part of their gaming repertoire.

For the uninitiated, let’s delve into some FAQs:

1. Q: What sets 에보 파워볼 apart from other gaming platforms?
A: Its unique gameplay, superior graphics, and captivating storyline set it above the rest.

2. Q: How difficult is it to play 에보 파워볼?
A: The gaming platform is designed for all skill levels, offering a fun experience for novices and veterans alike.

3. Q: What skills can one enhance while playing 에보 파워볼?
A: It provides an opportunity to improve various skills, including strategic thinking, quick decision-making, and hand-eye coordination.

4. Q: Is 에보 파워볼 only for competitive gamers?
A: While competitive gamers would undoubtedly enjoy 에보 파워볼, the platform is also designed for casual gamers seeking entertainment and enjoyment.

5. Q: Where can I play 에보 파워볼?
A: You can start your exciting journey at the Evo Powerball website.…

Controlled Environment Cabinets

By 2p7Qa98q 4 months ago

Electronic Humidity Control Cabinet

Electronic humidity control cabinet provides a controlled environment for storing your valuable equipment. The moisture-absorbing desiccant ensures your gear is safe from damage and corrosion. The bright LCD display displays the interior temperature and humidity levels.

A safe and stable microclimate for preserving and storing precious camera equipment. The cabinet is foamed-in-place with EPA compliant high-density and polyurethane foam.

HC-110

HC-110 provides controlled environmental conditions that eliminate moisture, dust and dirt for long term storage of delicate valuables such as jewelry, lenses, photographic and optical equipment, electronic products and more. Its durable cabinet enclosure is constructed from welded 1.2mm thick cold-rolled steel and a tempered glass door. The air-tight seal protects the cabinets contents from moisture, and its dehumidifying system quickly controls humidity levels, is energy efficient, silent running, and has a maintenance level of relative humidity for up to 24 hours after power is shut off.

The HC-110 features a button control panel that allows you to input specific interior conditions, and an easy-to-read LCD display that shows the cabinets humidity levels and temperature in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit. The cabinet also has three adjustable shelves that can be positioned depending on the size of your gear, and its foam lining adds extra protection against scratching or impacts.

HC-70

Protect your gear from the damaging effects of excessive moisture with the HC-70 electronic humidity control cabinet. The automatic dehumidifying system and durable construction ensure long-term safe storage of sensitive equipment. The bright LCD screen displays the interior humidity levels along with the interior temperature, in both degF and degC for quick monitoring. The exterior is constructed from welded 1.2mm-thick cold-rolled steel, and the door is made of tempered glass. The air-tight seal also protects the cabinets contents from outside moisture and dust.

This specialized storage cabinet is ideal for protecting valuables and precision accessories such as jewelry, lenses, photographic and optical equipment, electronic products and microcomputer chips. The high performance dehumidifying system is silent running and energy efficient, and keeps humidity levels consistent up to 24 hours after power shuts off. The interior is lined with foam to protect delicate items from scratches and impacts. The cabinet is constructed of 1.2 mm thick cold-rolled steel, and is precision welded to guarantee structural integrity and durability.

HC-80

Protect valuables, jewelry, lenses, cameras, photographic and optical equipment, mobile electronics, and more with this rugged dry cabinet from Ruggard. Its fast-acting TEC cooling wafer regulates relative humidity between 25-60% to help prevent corrosion, fungus, and mold growth. Humidity adjustments take place over a 1 to 3-hour period and the unit operates silently.

The cabinet’s easy-to-read LCD screen displays interior conditions, including humidity and temperature in both degF and degC. Its durable cabinet enclosure is made of welded 1.2mm-thick cold-rolled steel, while its tempered glass door offers an airtight seal to further protect the cabinet’s contents from exterior moisture and dust.

A good dry cabinet is one of those things that you don’t think about until it comes in handy. Then you grab that gorgeous vintage Summicron that’s been soaking in humidity for months, and find it has a spiderweb of fungus etched across an internal lens element. That’s why I really appreciate the Ruggard Electronic Dry Cabinet and highly recommend it to anyone who cares about their gear.

HC-90

HC cabinets have a controllable environment that prevents moisture from damaging equipment and valuable items. The microcomputer humidity controller allows you to adjust the internal humidity to suit your needs, while the durable construction and airtight seal provide physical protection from dust, water, and external contaminants. A password-protected LCD screen displays the internal temperature and humidity levels, making it easy to monitor conditions at a glance.

The cabinet uses a humidity sensor to provide feedback to the controller, achieving closed-loop humidity control. This is the recommended method for experiments requiring stability on a single humidity value in an air-tight chamber. Other methods rely on long equilibration times and often produce unstable results.

The humidity sensor is connected to the OpenHumidistat via a 4-wire data cable. Solder one end of the cable to the humidity sensor, and crimp a 6P4C plug on the other. The pin order on the cable should match that of the header marked I2C SHT85 on the mainboard.

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Exploring Electrical Control of 2D Magnetism in Bilayer Cri3

By 2p7Qa98q 4 months ago

Electrical Control of 2D Magnetism in Bilayer Cri3

The discovery of two-dimensional magnetic materials has provided a new toolbox for exploring exotic magnetic phenomena and phase transitions. Electrical control of these materials can help to engineer spintronic devices with low operational energy.

In this work, we show the first-ever electric control of 2d magnetism in bilayer cri3. This is achieved by modulating the interfacial magnetic anisotropy via electrostatic gating.

Electrostatic doping

Electrostatic doping is a common way to alter the magnetic properties of 2D magnets. It has many advantages over the conventional doping methods used in semiconductor devices, such as deposition of alkali metal atoms1,2,7,8. It allows large electric fields to be applied with high controllability, and it does not require annealing, which can destroy the structure of the material. In addition, it does not affect the molecular geometry of the atomically thin materials, making it easier to predict their behavior from first principles.

It is also possible to use electrostatic doping to control the directional magnetization of 2D magnetic monolayers. This can lead to a range of practical applications, such as magnetic field sensors and memory cells. In addition, it can be used to study the physics of 2D magnets and their interactions with other material systems.

However, it is not yet known whether the linear ME effect in 2D CrI3 bilayers can be exploited to enable reversible switching of the interlayer FM and AFM spin-flip states with zero applied magnetic bias, which would be an important step towards realizing device applications.

Layer-dependent magnetism

The electrical control of magnetism in 2D magnetic materials is a highly promising new area of research that has potential for many practical applications. The development of monolayer magnetic mate- rials provides a platform to study fundamental magnetic properties of purely two-dimensional materials and their interactions with external perturbations such as electric fields and strain.

In the case of bilayer CrI3, the linear ME effect has been shown to be a powerful tool for controlling magnetism in this material. When an applied electric field Ez is imposed, the ME effect induces a magnetization MZ = azzEz, which is linearly proportional to the vertical component of Ez. The resulting change in the magnetization is easily detectable, even at low field values.

Layered magnetic systems can also provide a platform for exploring other interesting magnetic states beyond ferromagnetism. These include antiferromagnets, quantum spin liquids, and possibly topological magnetic skyrmions. The precise control of magnetic state via electric fields will enable us to explore the full spectrum of exciting phenomena and phase transitions in these two-dimensional materials.

Magnetic phase transition

A plethora of different magnetic states exists in bilayer cri3. This is due to the strong interlayer interaction that causes atomic fluctuations. The resulting magnetization patterns can be controlled by external factors, including electric field, strain, and light. This opens up the possibility of developing novel spin-dependent materials for high performance nanoelectronics.

The researchers observed that the magnetic state can be stabilized by changing the twist angle of the bilayer. This can be done by annealing the sample in various conditions. They found that a twisted sample exhibited different magnetization textures, which is important for the application of 2D materials in twistronics and spintronics.

Using a magnetic field, they were able to tune the atomic vibrations in the moire pattern and induce a phase transition in the system. This was confirmed by the experimental results of a MOKE measurement. The onset temperature of the transition is determined by the spin dimensionality of the system. This is important because large static universality classes are split into smaller dynamic ones.

Biaxial strain

The ability to tune the magnetic properties of 2D materials by applying strain opens up a new area for applications in magnonics and spintronics. In particular, a biaxial strain can enhance the Curie temperature and magnetic stability of 2D magnets by elevating the out-of-plane MAE and Zeeman energy. This can suppress the thermal fluctuations of gapless magnon modes in the long wavelength limit.

In addition to influencing the magnetic properties of the material, biaxial strain can also increase the electron mobility. Recent theory and experiments have shown that biaxial substrate expansion or compression can improve the on-state current and mobility of monolayer MoS$_2$, a 2D semiconductor.

To understand how a biaxial strain works, consider the case of a 3L-MoS2 flake coated with a patterned Al2O3/MgF2/Al2O3 stressor. The polarized Raman measurements on this sample are shown in Figs. 4(b) and 4(e). The amplitude of the E12gE2g1 and A1gA1g Raman peak positions is measured as a function of the thickness of the coating (thth). This figure of merit shows that the tensile strain doesn’t break the degeneracy of either peak.

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